When assessing the most current E-Marketing tools, trends and practices emerging in developed and developing countries none is more prominent than mobile communications. Today 90 percent of the world has access to a mobile network and fully 77 percent of the world population (~5.4 billion persons) subscribe to a mobile phone service. (Mobithinking, 2011; Information Economy Report, 2011). Already in over seventy-five countries, the number of mobile phones exceeds the country’s population (Martin, 2011). Indeed, it can be argued that since its commercial debut in the early 1980’s, the mobile phone (and the smartphone in particular) is the fastest diffusing and most disrupting technologies ever developed. As Kalba observed in his 2008 Harvard study “The Global Adoption and Diffusion of Mobile Phones:” “Certainly mobile phones are as widespread as any human-developed technology, with the sole exception of clothing and, possibly, food bowls. The number of handhelds has recently surpassed the number of landline phones, TV sets, radios, and even bicycles… Moreover, it has happened in a blink… Mobile phones appear to be everywhere. Our children use them, often by the time they reach grade school, as do their grandparents. So do the Europeans, the Chinese, the Indians, the Brazilians, and the Russians. Mobile phones have pervaded the streets of Africa, with … the service already available to a majority of the continent’s population” (Kalba, 2008). Mobile is “the first telecommunications technology in history to have more users in the developing world” (Gerreau, 2008). As of 2009, the developing world accounted for three-quarters of the global mobile market (Green, 2009). China is the world’s largest market and Africa is the fastest growing market. In fact, Africa has been (See Figure 1) and continues to be (Groupe Speciale Mobile Association, 2011) the fastest growing mobile market in the rate of subscriber growth.
Today, it remains that “the best performing economies in mobile subscription growth are all developing or transition economies” as “the mobile phone has become the most prevalent ICT tool among the poor, among rural inhabitants and among micro-enterprises in low-income countries” (Information Economy Report, 2011). The rapid diffusion of mobile in underdeveloped countries is attributable to the relative scarcity of landlines as well as “the rise of home-grown mobile service providers that have developed new business models”- such as pre-paid cards- “and industry structures that enable them to make a profit serving low-spending customers that Western firms would not bother with” (Green, 2009). Also prevalent in developing countries is the multiplier effect of mobile phone ownership that comes with the increased “shared use” of mobile phones wherein, “family members and friends share not only mobile phones but also individual calls, to the point that it can be considered antisocial not to include someone nearby when taking a call” (Kalba, 2008). In a very real sense, mobile market development has become intertwined with a developing country’s economic development. The “World Bank has calculated that ‘adding an extra ten mobile phones per 100 people in a typical developing country boosts growth in GDP per person by 0.8 percentage points” (Green, 2009). Accordingly (Information Economy Report, 2011) The central role that the mobile phone plays in developing countries is illustrated by the phenomenon that “airtime minutes have become a sort of currency” (Gerreau, 2008). And, unlike “in rich countries” where that currency is spent on “services like music downloads and mobile gaming… in poor countries mobile minutes are expended on “data services such as mobile-phone-based agricultural advice, health care and money transfer could provide enormous economic and developmental benefits” (Green, 2009).
Currently, the on-going mobile revolution is being propelled by the diffusion of the smartphone; “defined as “a cellular telephone with built-in applications and Internet access which provides digital voice service as well as text messaging, e-mail, Web browsing, still and video cameras, MP3 player, video viewing and often video calling. In addition to their built-in functions, smartphones can run myriad applications, turning the once single-minded cellphone into a mobile computer” (PC Magazine, 2011). As of 2011, it is predicted that 16% of global spending for all digital products will be to purchase an additional 468 million smartphones; a 58% increase over 2010 (Polifke, 2011). Consequently, smartphone owners now comprise the majority of mobile users in the U.S. as in Japan, the U.K., Spain, and Italy and globally are emerging as the dominant source Internet access (Comscore, 2011).
The fact that mobile is on the verge of surpassing the PC as the primary access vehicle to the Internet could explain the phenomenal growth rate in WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) mobile ready/readable content --in 2008 there existed 150,000 mobile-ready Web sites, by 2010 there were 3.01 million mobile-ready Web sites (Mobile Marketer, 2011). This unprecedented adoption of a single communication device is understandable when one considers that the mobile phone, in reality, proffers all the functions and content of all preceding media into a pocket-size appliance. At is most basic and original service level it is a personal communication vehicle that transmits in voice as well as text and video modes. In addition, it is an information and entertainment appliance that can access the internet and accordingly convey every mass medium (television, radio, newspaper, magazine, movies) and social media platform (Facebook, Twitter, Google+, blogs). In terms of form, function and cost, the mobile phone has come a long very long way in a relatively short time. From the 1983, $4000 dollar Motorola DynaTac800X that was the “size of a Philly cheese steak and weighing almost two pounds,” to the iphone -“a hunk of plastic smaller than a candy bar” (Gerreau, 2008) capable of performing an ever growing number of functions delivered by an ever growing number of “apps.” Albeit, marketers are cautioned to keep the smartphone hyperbole in check because currently smartphones account “for just 27 percent of all mobile phones sold globally,” and although it has reached majority status in Japan, the US and in selected European countries, in Asia only one in four devices is a smartphone, in Latin America and Africa/Middle East smartphones account “for just 18 and 17 percent of the respective mobile markets” (Russell, 2011). Nevertheless, the trend lines are clear continual improvements in function, carrier services, ownership (the $50 smartphone will be reality this year) and subscriber costs will drive near universal adoption. The Smartphone is already at the center of social networking, a key driver of user-generated-content (UGC) and the primary (and for millions - the only) means of internet access. It is only a matter of time, perhaps within this decade, that the smartphone will be universally most everyone’s most used and most important personal communication appliance.
• Consumer behavior is transitioning from mostly using the phone for voice and text communication to using it as a secondary or even primary computing device. For this subset of mobile users set the precedent emerging patterns of use
Time to access where SP stands:
From user/consumer perspective:
· >who uses --
· how ----their pocket-size computer is used for browsing the web, watching videos, reading e-mails, listening to personalized radio stations, downloading eBooks - heck, even filing taxes.
· where when why
From marketers perspective:
1) Strategic considerations and tactical applications
2) What emerging in near future
3) Question of measurement
Efficacy- awareness, engagement, transactions… ROI
The Mobile Market: User Profiles & Patterns
Commensurate with the rapid diffusion of smartphone ownership has come a profusion of studies and statistics documenting “who” (demographically and geographically) is using mobile phones as well as when, where, why, how and why. Analysis and synthesis of the most recent and comprehensive surveys yields the following insights:
Demographically: As one would expect, the leading segments in smartphone acquisition also tend to be the heaviest users. Accordingly, smartphone use skews heavy toward younger users and slightly male. As measured in the U.K. “smartphone users are more likely to be male than regular mobile phone users (58% compared to 44%) they are also younger (27% are 16-24 compared to 11% of regular mobile phone users (Ofcom, 2011). Among all U.S. mobile users “the vast majority of those under the age of 44 now have smartphones, with 25 to 34 year olds registering three times (62% vs. 18%) the level of smartphone ownership than individuals 65 years or older” (Nielsen, 2011). Of further note are the use patterns and statistics that establish the young as the most ardent and active segment of smartphone users. To wit:
60% of youth sleep with their smartphone, 75% use it in the bathroom, 77% at a bar/nightclub, 67% on a date, 89% at work, 72% at the family dinner table, and 33% in church (Graham, 2011), 82% use their smartphone while watching TV and 85% use their smartphone while listening to music (Dean, 2010).
When assessing the data documenting where and how individuals are using their mobile phones, one fact is clear. Essentially, wherever people go they carry and consequently use their mobile phones. The fact that it is used in some places more than others is to some extant a function of how much relative time spend individuals spend in any one place, thus it is not surprising that the smartphone is used most often at home and registers notable amounts of use at work. The quintessential and defining function of smartphones is Internet access, accordingly one finds that 87% of smartphone users access the Internet and 77% use a search engine on a weekly basis (Google/IPSOS OTX MediaCT, 2011).
Most significantly for marketers is the fact that the third most prevalent locale and concurrent activity that one finds smartphone usage is “in a store” and “while shopping.” The common denominator among all remaining locales and concurrent activities that register noteworthy mobile usage is idle/personal time. Herein, as individuals commute, recreate, socialize, eat, sit in doctor’s office or airport, pump gas or use the bathroom—they utilize their mobile phone.
The ubiquity and frequency of use is attributable to the multitude of functions that the mobile- and more specifically the smartphone- serves. Of all the activities that one uses a smartphone for, most (89%) use it to “stay connected” through email and social networking sites. Beyond staying connected individuals want to stay informed (with 82% of mobile use categorized as “internet research and reading news”) stay geographically oriented (with 75% using mobile for navigation and directions), Staying entertained (65%) and organized (with 45% of use for personal and financial management) (Google/IPSOS OTX MediaCT, 2011). The primacy of “staying connected” is also reflected in the annual trends of mobile phone functional activities wherein email, messaging and social networking register the greatest levels of past and projected use. In 2010, U.S. mobile social media use grew 37 percent (Comscore, 2011) and it is now estimated that individuals spend on average 2.7 hours per day socializing on their mobile phone (Danyl, 2011).
In addition to “staying connected” the mobile phone has enabled individuals to easily and instantly “get connected” through the phenomenon of “Flash Mobbing.” Together with its variants-- known as “twitter journalism” and “Facebook Revolution”-- a significant amount of socio-cultural and political revolution has been directly attributed to “the explosive growth of mobile technology” (Handley, 2006). Throughout the Middle East (Tunisia, Egypt, Iran) as well as in Asia (China, India, the Philippines, Hong Kong)
“the advent of mobile technology …has precipitated a shift in society; it has given power to a population of people who may otherwise be powerless, enabled people to express their own personalities in a way that is otherwise frowned upon and challenge social customs” (Handley, 2006).
Mobile Marketing: Strategic Considerations
The continually expanding “facts and stats” on smartphone ownership, use and impact provide intermittent snapshots of the progression of smartphone across the diffusion-of-innovation curve. It is only a matter of time (perhaps 5 to 6 years) that these impacts and use patterns that are being registered by the early majority will be evidenced with the late and great majority as well. As smartphone technology advances, cost decreases and ownership increases. As ownership and use increases, so too does the necessity for marketers to feature mobile in their marketing mix. The benefits of mobile are already clear (ubiquitous, convenient, personal, and local). Its commercial applications are many (messaging - communication and collaboration, shopping, ticket purchasing, reservations, customer service, entertainment – music, games, gambling, interactive multi-player events, travel, finance). Its effectiveness already documented and it is considerable:
• 82% of mobile users notice ads, 71% search because they saw an ad, 42% clicked on ads and 35% visited the website (Google/IPSOS OTX MediaCT, 2011)
• It takes 90 minutes for the average person to respond to an email. But it takes 90 seconds for the average person to respond to a text message (Smartinsights, 2011)
• Mobile coupons get 10 times the redemption rate of traditional coupons. (Smartinsights, 2011)
• 67% of smartphone uses research on their phone then buy in the store (Google/IPSOS OTX MediaCT, 2011)
• One half of local searches are performed on mobile phones (Danyl,2011) and 88% of local information seekers take action within a day, 77% call or visit the business and 44% purchase- online or in-store (Google/IPSOS OTX MediaCT, 2011)
The smartphone’s demonstrated role in consumer search, decision-making and purchase makes it an essential consideration in most any inbound and outbound marketing strategy. As one marketing practitioner observed the “it has become a critical conduit to the consumer, one that is quickly morphing into an all-purpose, on-the-go device for payments, identity, Web browsing, communications. All this varied activity provides a new array of data, including subscriber and demographic information, behavioral data, geospatial insight, purchase and browsing data, and application fingerprints… (one) can use the insight gleaned from this information and activity to deliver the right content, communications, promotions, and proactive service interactions to the right customer at the right time—not only in the mobile channel, but also in other channels, by integrating mobile data with customer data from other sources, like a CRM system.” (Papachristos, 2011)
Mobile Marketing-Tactical Considerations. When considering specifically how to utilize the smartphone in one’s marketing efforts, the smartphone proffers the marketer a variety of distinct avenues: 1) Messaging with SMS, MMS and QR codes; 2) Connecting -through a mobile site or application; 3) Location Marketing utilizing GPS, Bluetooth, NFC (Near Field Communication) and/or Augmented Reality).
Messaging: The first and to date the most prevalent mode of mobile marketing has been the Short Messaging Service (SMS). Subsequent modes of messaging include MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service) and QR (Quick Response) codes. SMS text messaging is the most widely used data application in the world, with billions of active users. Conceived and developed in the mid 1980’s, it was not until the mid 1990’s that the service of sending short messages, 160 seven-bit characters in length, took off. Wherein, 1995 the average person was sending just 0.4 message per month, in 2010 they sent 6.9 trillion, and SMS traffic is expected to surpass 8 trillion in 2011 (Bott, 2011). The incredible volume of SMS is attributable to its relatively low cost, high reach and compelling nature. Regarding cost, for “as little as $85 per month per 1000 customers a small business can hire a bulk SMS provider (or mobile agency) to handle it SMS, moreover the higher the volume, the greater the discount per SMS” (Iannuzzi, 2011). Regarding reach and efficacy “the open rate for text messages is a staggering 98%, (compared to 22% for email marketing) and “97% of mobile subscribers will read a text message within four minutes of receipt” (Bott, 2011).
When using SMS and/or MMS a number of factors should be kept in mind. In many countries you need the permission of users to send them text message. If users “opt in,” you only have 160 characters to use to deliver your message; and if you use MMS, different brands of smartphones have different standards and capabilities.
Of the various modes of messaging, the “Quick Response (QR) Code” has exhibited growing use given the ability to instantly transfer larger (relative to SMS) amounts of information across a greater number of platforms and locals. QR codes can be placed on any surface (storefronts, windows, uniforms, packaging, merchandise) and any visual medium - (from TV to signs, menus, flyers, billboards and brochures to any book, magazines or newspapers—on or off-line). Once more, “smartphones now come with readers pre-installed and consumers are quickly learning how to scan them and they are the perfect tool for installing your app right onto users’ phones within seconds” (Iannuzzi, 2011).
Developed in Japan in the mid 1990’s to assist in automobile manufacturing, the QR code has become a principle platform in mobile marketing to transmit messages to consumers. Growth in QR use has been exponential. In North America alone, QR scanning has grown 4549% within the past year (Mobi,2011); with the overwhelming percentage (89%) of scans being by users seeking information. That the QR Code should lead to content that customers will find informative if not monetarily rewarding should be obvious. However, “too often QR Codes lead users to an irrelevant YouTube video or ad which turns them off” and the marketer misses the opportunity to capture valuable data “by including a poll or quiz, coupon, order or feedback form” (Iannuzzi, 2011). Consumers’ propensity to use a QR code is the same as with any promotional tool, their greatest interest is in getting some kind of deal (coupon, discount, sweepstake) or the even the ability todirectly purchase the product will drive its use.
Mobile Marketing-Tactical Considerations: Connecting -through a mobile site or application.
Since 2008 more people access the internet from their mobile phones than their desktop computers ((International Telecommunications Union, 2009). As a consequence of this phenomenon, a parallel universe of the web has emerged called the mobile web (which consists of all application and browser-based users accessing the Internet through a a mobile phone that is connected to a wireless network). For marketers the implications of the mobile web are twofold:
1) All web based platforms must include a mobile option that is optimized to display clearly on palm-size screens. Presently, the overwhelming majority of online advertisers do not know what a mobile-optimized site is (Bott, 2011) and even if they do know, most have not bothered to develop one (Searchengine Watch, 2011). Failure to optimize one’s website for mobile, results in a consumer pulling up a landing page that is so tiny the text is unreadable and the links unusable. As a consequence the entire mobile marketing effort and experience is unprofitable for all.
2) All “paid search” advertising efforts should include a separate campaign targeted to feature phones because conducting a Google search from a feature phone will “serve up mobile web results” while the same search on a smart phone or desktop will yield results from the standard Google index, “resulting in a different set of both organic and paid search results:”
· If you have a smart phone (full HTML mobile browser), your organic search results will be similar to desktop, but the paid search results may be different (only ads that are set up to target smart phones will appear).
· For Feature Phones (phones with a WAP browser), both organic search results and paid search results will be different than those on a desktop/smart phone. To reach feature phones with a paid search, a dedicated campaign is required (paid search campaigns that only target mobile WAP devices do not overlap with regular online paid search campaigns). (Haider, 2011)
Smartphone applications. Perhaps nothing has become more synonymous with the the smartphone than the “app.” Already among the nearly half-a-million itune apps and Android’s 352,000 (Spriensma, 2011) a user can find an app for most anything. Apps are the new websites in that everybody has to have one. Moreover, the explosion in app growth is also a result of the fact that not only do all the top global brands have their own app, the leading brands have “24 applications on average per brand” (Shaughnessy, 2011). This superfluity of apps has emerged as a major problem for app marketers and developers. The problem of getting discovered, and “regularly” used, is a continuing problem for marketers, albeit some proven approaches and best practices have begun to emerge. To wit: “Utility, frequency and viral” are qualities that are correlated with getting noticed in the new app economy and long-term success, “For apps to become a sustainable business, they need to provide instant utility, have a high frequency of use and encourage word of mouth and network pass-along” in so much as “people find apps through other people,” hence, ”word of mouth, social media and PR make up the most successful marketing vehicles for an app” (Patel, 2009).
There is no shortage of “best app” lists (by year, by platform or category) that one can consult to glean insight into what makes an app successful. Common traits are often no more than common sense—i.e. be aesthetically pleasing with a stable, intuitive and fast loading user interface, be well researched, tested and glitch free; and perhaps most importantly solve a problem that the user faces on a regular basis. Be they mundane activities such as shopping or personal needs, such as when nature calls, there is an app for that. When shopping, apps such as RedLaser and ShopSavvy allow consumers to scan a product, compare prices, decide if the product they are scanning is cheaper nearby or online and then, accordingly, buy the product. Or, when nature calls and
“you're exploring a new city … you look around at all the buildings, knowing full well that they all have bathrooms — nice, clean bathrooms. But which of them have bathrooms that you can use without committing a felony? The Charmin-sponsored SitOrSquat: Bathroom Finder app presents info on nearby public restrooms — most with user reviews, hours of availability and even photos. If you find a hidden gem that's not on the list, you can add it to the database to help out future full-bladdered tourists. (Aamoth, 2011)
The ability to provide consumers with critical and valuable information at the most relevant and opportune time is the smartphone apps greatest selling point. Accordingly, one finds the most successful mobile marketers, such as Starbucks serving up location and promotional information to consumers when they are in a 5km radius of their stores.
Location Marketing: Leveraging GPS and sensor networks. Consumers are employing their smartphones to optimize their shopping experience. Essentially, marketers can assist consumers in this endeavor three ways: 1) help consumers find what they are shopping for; 2) help consumers decide what to purchase; and 3) help consumers purchase what they have selected.
Help Find: Concomitant with the development of the smart phone has been the development and commercial application of location-based services that leverage the capabilities of GPS technology to enable the search and discovery of persons, places, and things within any identifiable space. Marketers can locate consumers and proactively communicate business location and promotions. Consumers can search for and locate businesses and download product/service information and other consumers’ evaluations and recommendations; as noted, the top activity among consumers in a recent study by Millennial Media, was searching for specific items in order to find a better price and to search for product reviews. (Gunelius, 2011).
Help Decide: The ability to identify your customer or potential customer at the exact time that they are in the vicinity of or actually in your place business affords the marketer the ability to not only provide timely information (maps, specs, prices) but enticing incentives that have a greater likelihood of being acted upon. Being near/at the point of purchase increases the probability of impulse purchasing. Just-in-time delivery of the right message can trigger immediate response. To wit: “Come in/purchase within the next 20 minutes - receive 20% off.” Such reasoning might explain the fact that mobile coupons (aka: “moupons”) get 10 times the redemption rate of traditional coupons (Smartinsights, 2011).
Help Purchase: Utilizing the short range (~ 1.5 inches) capacity of Near Field Communication, mobile marketers are streaming the purchasing process with a “flash payment” option. Herein the mobile phone becomes a digital wallet that the customer need only “tap and go using infrastructure already in place for credit card systems such as MasterCard’s PayPass program or Visa’s payWave” (Kessler, 2010). Once more, the “digital wallet” concept has been extended to assist in incentivizing the purchase as well. For example, MoLo Rewards proffers NFC-based coupon program wherein, “consumers can use the site to download coupons, which they exchange by having their phone swiped at the point of purchase… “Want to send a coupon to a consumer who purchased a box of cereal on the 21st of December at 11am EST?” (Kessler, 2010). Consumer use of NFC services reflects the fact that NFC payment and promotion systems are only in the introductory stage. In 2010, “there were just 1.7 million NFC transactions processed even though there were 13 million cardholders and 52,000 contactless terminals in the UK” ( However, with the exponential growth of smartphone sales and the entrance into the market of major players such as Google with its Google Wallet and NC mobile contactless payment transactions are predicted to grow to $50 billion by 2014 ( .
In order for mobile marketers to achieve such predicted levels of expenditure consumer must become aware of the personal, practical and pecuniary advantages of location based services (LBS). Herein, it suggested that marketers leverage the phenomenon known as “Social Proof” to drive the adoption of LBS. As argued by Lee (2011), “if you’re looking to grow your user base… I’m increasingly convinced the best way is by harnessing a concept called social proof, a relatively untapped gold mine in the age of the social web… Put simply, it’s the positive influence created when someone finds out that others are doing something. It’s also known as informational social influence…. people are wired to learn from the actions of others, and this can be a huge driver of consumer behavior.” Accordingly, when people see other people using LBS or learn though the social grapevine such services are beneficial, adaptation is likely. The key for marketers and small business owners is to provide enough incentive (discounts, prizes, recognition etc.) to customers so that they are compelled to opt-in and use LBS and share their experience on their social networks -- Facebook, Twitter and Google + (Schneider and Strout, 2011).
Where is Mobile Marketing Headed?
Simply stated, mobile marketing is headed to the forefront of marketing applications and concerns. No longer can smartphone users be characterized as a limited “subset of highly technical (geeky) early adopters, gamers and social networking dynamos” which spend money, are loud and maybe are worth marketing to” (Schneider and Strout, 2011). Smartphone diffusion has reached critical mass. Wherein not only is there a sizable enough segment of the population using the technology to make it a viable and lucrative marketing segment, but also it has begun to impact the ownership use patterns of related technologies, most specifically the land-line, feature phone and personal computer.
From the academic perspective smartphone technology is categorized as “disruptive,” in that proffers consumers a platform that is superior to existing communication devices in its ubiquity and versatility (Bower and Christensen, 1995). From the professional and practitioner’s perspective the smartphone is “strategic,” in that it has “the potential for significant impact on the enterprise in the next three years…a high potential for disruption to IT or the business, the need for a major dollar investment, or the risk of being late to adopt” (Gartner, 2011). In delineating the top 10 technologies that are strategic “for most organizations,” the smartphone and its inherent technologies are prominent in Gartner’s list:
· Embedded sensors: Sensors that detect and communicate changes are being embedded, not just in mobile devices, but in an increasing number of places and objects.
These unique and demonstrated attributes of the smartphone suggest that its diffusion rate will approach the state wherein most everyone, everywhere will own and/or use such a device by the end of this decade. Indeed, “It’s time to get on board” and start investing more money into mobile advertising and marketing campaigns and actively testing tactics and experimenting with the smartphone features “before it’s too late and you’re left desperately trying to catch up” (Gunelius, 2011). Presently, “companies like Shopkick are experimenting with sound wave emitters that can track people to specific aisles of a store” and test consumers responses to targeted offers (Schneider and Strout, 2011). The recent addition of artificial intelligence- personal assistance “Siri” service to the iPhone is a true game changer when it comes to search (as Siri replaces Google) and customer relationship management. Such that, with Siri, “we can start to imagine a completely hands-free approach to sales and marketing. No longer chained to your laptop for updates and analysis, sales and marketing professionals can spend more time building real relationships and brainstorming ideas for attracting new customers. Our "smarketing agents" will be with us wherever we go, allowing us to monitor visits, comments and questions for any of our brand venues and respond in real time with verbal responses” (McTigue, 2011)
LEAD-into MEASUREMENT Section
One other top 10 tech delineated by gartner addressed –“Next-Generation Analytics. Analytics is growing along three key dimensions:
4. Analytics is also beginning to shift to the cloud and exploit cloud resources for high performance and grid computing.
5. In 2011 and 2012, analytics will increasingly focus on decisions and collaboration. The new step is to provide simulation, prediction, optimization and other analytics, not simply information, to empower even more decision flexibility at the time and place of every business process action.
6. Big Data. The size, complexity of formats and speed of delivery exceeds the capabilities of traditional data management technologies; it requires the use of new or exotic technologies simply to manage the volume alone. Many new technologies are emerging, with the potential to be disruptive (e.g., in-memory DBMS). Analytics has become a major driving application for data warehousing, with the use of MapReduce outside and inside the DBMS, and the use of self-service data marts. One major implication of big data is that in the future users will not be able to put all useful information into a single data warehouse. Logical data warehouses bringing together information from multiple sources as needed will replace the single data warehouse model.
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